R. Mayer, A. Rauber:
"Multimodal Aspects of Music Retrieval: Audio, Song Lyrics - and Beyond?
in:"Advances in Music Information Retrieval
", Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-11673-5, S. 333 - 363.
[ Publication Database
Music retrieval is predominantly seen as a problem to be tackled in the acoustic domain. With the exception of symbolic music retrieval and score-based systems, which form rather separate sub-disciplines on their own, most approaches to retrieve recordings of music by content rely on different features extracted from the audio signal. Music is subsequently retrieved by similarity matching, or classi-
ﬁed into genre, instrumentation, artist or other categories. Yet, music is an inherently multimodal type of data. Apart from purely instrumental pieces, the lyrics associated with the music are as essential to the reception and the message of a song as is the audio. Album covers are carefully designed by artists to convey a message
that is consistent with the message sent by the music on the album as well as by the image of a band in general. Music videos, fan sites and other sources of information add to that in a usually coherent manner. This paper takes a look at recent developments in multimodal analysis of music. It discusses different types of information sources available, stressing the multimodal character of music. It then reviews some features that may be extracted from those sources, focussing particularly on audio and lyrics as sources of information. Experimental results on different collections and categorisation tasks will round off the chapter. It shows the merits and open
issues to be addressed to fully beneﬁt from the rich and complex information space that music creates.